Using the names and ages of the slaves from the probate records as the surname of the slave owner, try to find the former slaves in the 1870 Census in the county where they had been enslaved. Since it appears from the small amount of information you provided, that the estate was not settled until 1870, it means the slaves had been emancipated with all others in the area sometime between 1863 and 1865 (end of Civil War). Not all slaves took the surname of their former owner, but many did, so start there. Also look at the local Freedmen's Bureau Records that would include where they had lived.
Dear Mr. Parrish,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
As the previous poster mentioned, the Population Schedules for the 1870 Census and the Population Schedules for the 1880 Census in the Records of the Bureau of the Census (Record Group 29) may contain records of the emancipated enslaved persons that you seek. For access to the non-digitized schedules, please contact the National Archives at Washington, DC - Textual Reference (RDT1) via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and pursuant to guidance received from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), NARA has adjusted its normal operations to balance the need of completing its mission-critical work while also adhering to the recommended social distancing for the safety of NARA staff. As a result of this re-prioritization of activities, you may experience a delay in receiving an initial acknowledgement as well as a substantive response to your reference request from RDT1. We apologize for this inconvenience and appreciate your understanding and patience.
For information about the U.S. Census, see the Census Bureau technical documentation and questionnaires.
You may wish to search Ancestry.com or FamilySearch.org for the U.S. Census. There may be a fee for using Ancestry. Instead, check for access at your local library as many library systems subscribe to these sites, making them free for their patrons.
We also suggest that you review NARA’s page on Freedmen's Bureau Records for more resources about locating information about formerly enslaved people.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your research!