Dear Mr. Dolce,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
Under US law, enemy alien status was not the result of individuals being declared enemy aliens, but was the collective status of all Italian citizens aged 14 and over residing in the United States as a result of the state of war that existed between the United States and Italy and the resulting Presidential Proclamation No. 2527. Estimates from the time put the number of Italian aliens in the United States at around the start of the war at approximately 700,000 based on the alien registrations that resulted from the Alien Registration Act of 1940. We are unaware of any comprehensive list of these individuals.
To add the numbers, the United States also encouraged Latin American countries to treat Axis citizens as enemy aliens, and entered into agreements with some Latin American countries for them to be sent to the US for detention.
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located Alien Case Files, 1944 - 2009 in the Records of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (Record Group 566) which contains many of the files created as a result of the Alien Registration Act. The records are also described on our topic page Alien Files (A-Files). For more information about these records contact National Archives at Kansas City[A] (RM-KC[A]) at Afileskansascity@nara.gov.
Additional A-Files, including those for individuals born 1918 and prior, are available through the United States Citizenship and Immigration Service Genealogy Program.
We also located Registration Forms Filed by Resident Aliens in the United States, 1940 - ca. 1943 in the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (Record Group 85), however these records are fully restricted by law and can not be accessed.
The majority of the Italian citizens living in the United States during the war were subject to extra restrictions but otherwise were unaffected. However, many were investigated, some of these were arrested, and some of those arrested were detained. There were several different agencies involved in this process, therefore files pertaining to any particular individual or category of person might be in one of several locations.
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located multiple record series pertaining to enemies aliens during the 1940s. The bulk of these records related specifically to those that were arrested and interned during the war. For example, Records Relating to Italian Civilian Internees During World War II, 1941 - 1946 in the Records of the Office of the Provost Marshal General (Record Group 389) deals specifically with Italians that were interned in military camps. There are also separate records pertaining to those held at various INS camps. We also located the Subject and Policy Files, 1906 - 1957 in Record Group 85 which likely has information about the Enemy Alien Control Program. For more information about individual series, please email the reference unit listed as the contact in the Catalog description.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and pursuant to guidance received from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), NARA has adjusted its normal operations to balance the need of completing its mission-critical work while also adhering to the recommended social distancing for the safety of NARA staff. As a result of this re-prioritization of activities, you may experience a delay in receiving an initial acknowledgement as well as a substantive response to your reference request from the various NARA units. We apologize for this inconvenience and appreciate your understanding and patience.
Some lists of some of the internees in some camps have been posted online at https://www.foitimes.com/internment/CampLists/CampLists.htm and https://gaic.info/miscellaneous-internee-lists/. These are not comprehensive.
We also suggest that you read the Brief Overview of the World War II Enemy Alien Control Program and watch the “Know Your Records Program” on the topic of the “World War II Enemy Aliens Program” available at C-SPAN.
If you have further questions about specific individuals or categories of Italian enemy aliens, we’d be happy to assist you here on History Hub. You may also submit questions privately to NARA’s Contact Us form.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your research!
[Some information provided by Elizabeth Burnes, Subject Matter Expert]