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The following gives serial numbers ranges for dates of manufacture.
The M1884 was created in rifle, cadet rifle, and carbine versions. Exact dimensions will vary by what type of M1884 you have. For technical details, there are some records of the Springfield Armory at the National Archives at Boston. Also the staff at the Springfield Armory National Historic Site may be able to help you some. You might also want to try the following books, websites and forums.
In regards to your last question, that's really something you would need to need to take up with a qualified antiques dealer/appraiser who can provide a hands on evaluation of the rifle.
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The model 1884 did not come in serial number 80835, the beginning numbers are 280001 for the rifle, carbine and cadet rifle. Did you mean 480835( mistakenly hitting the dollar sign instead of the number 4?)
If so then the rifle was produced in 1890.
According to the Springfield Research Service Serial Numbers Volume 2, 2nd Edition a large number of these 1884 trapdoor rifles, in serial numbers near yours, were given to the US Navy in 1943, however the closed serial number I found was 480883 which was transferred to the Springfield Armory Museum in 1909.
Texas Military Forces Museum