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The 6 number code found in reports? yes they can for Europe. It takes a bit of work, but there is a site called the Coordinates Translator : http://www.echodelta.net/mbs/eng-translator.php
You need to know which of the maps to look at, and if you don't have the 2 letter code in front of the numbers then you have to make an educated guess.
For example I've attached a page from the S3 journal for the 141st Inf Regt. for December 10-11, 1944. It has many map coordinates. We will take the first one which is 683493. I don't have the letter code but the name of a town, Sigolahiem is mentioned further down.
So then I google Sigolahiem and I look for where it is in relation to one of the 3 French maps on the coordinator site. Based on what I see I choose Map French Lambert Zone 2 and chose section WK.
So I type in WK683493 into the coordinates translator box and it converts it to a modern map.
I can then zoom in, switch to satellite view if I want and get very close image of the exact location of Company C, 141st Infantry Regiment on December 10-11 1944
It takes time to get the hand of it, but it does work very well. Let me know if you have any questions. If you have the coordinates and would like me to try and find the location for you, I can try and do that.
Texas Military Forces Museum
In addition to Lisa's good response this method also works with the often times used four digit location identifier, but once again you have to ascertain the two-letter grid, e.g. Wz.