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There was a prisoner ship that was used by the British called the "Jersey" which according to records was stationed in wallabout Bay. Some prisoners did not want to endure the disease and other horrors so many had decided just to join the Royal Navy.
After the British captured Charleston 1780. Many large numbers of men from South Carolina militia units were incarcerated in St. Augustine. The regular, Continental forces captured at Charleston were placed in prisons in and around the city. A special prison camp was set up outside Charleston at "Haddrell's Point".
***Here is some reference of additional records**
Papers of the Continental Congress
___M247, Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. DP. 204 rolls. Arranged in a numerical
order by Item Numbers. The Item Numbers can be found by using the five volume printed index to
the Papers of the Continental Congress. The records document the activities of pre-Federal
congresses in areas such as, military, foreign, fiscal and naval affairs.
The lists of prisoners found in this series range from printed reports listing names of British officers taken at Trenton, N.J., to detailed accountings of several dozen American POWs detained on a ship in Charlestown Harbor.
Revolutionary War Rolls
___M246, Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783. DP. 138 rolls. Roll 135, jacket 4 of this series
contains about thirty pages of names listing American prisoners of war. The lists usually contain name, rank, state of residence, and regiment. These lists are mainly centered around 1780, but the dates cover most of the war. This chart below contains a short catalog of files containing names of British, Loyalist and American prisoners of war.
Dear Mr. Marshall,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located a digitized file unit for Colonel Thomas Marshall and several for Richard Richardson from the series Compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutionary War, 1894-1912 in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records (Record Group 93).
We also searched Ancestry and located All Military Results for Thomas Marshall and Military Results for Richard Richardson. Some of these may be the same as cited above. Instead of paying to use Ancestry, you may view these records online at one NARA's facilities for free via a NARA PC. For the nearest NARA location, please consult our web page at https://www.archives.gov/locations/. Also, some of the images from Ancestry are available for free on Family Search at https://www.familysearch.org/en/.
We were unable to locate any records connecting your ancestors Thomas Marshall and Richard Richardson together in Charleston, South Carolina in 1780. Unfortunately, most records in War Department custody were destroyed by fire on November 8, 1800; and later many of the remaining Revolutionary War records were lost during the War of 1812. In 1873, Secretary of War William Belknap purchased for the Federal Government the papers of Timothy Pickering, who had been a member of the Board of War, Adjutant General of the Continental Army, and Quartermaster General; the papers of Samuel Hodgdon, Commissary General of Military Stores for several years during the war; miscellaneous contemporary papers; and some minor groups of records and single record items.
Under authority of an act of March 2, 1913 (37 Stat. 723), the War Department made photographic copies of Revolutionary War records in the custody of public and private institutions in Virginia, North Carolina, and Massachusetts. These records in NARA’s custody form what is known as the War Department’s Collection of Revolutionary War Records (Record Group 93) that was transferred to the National Archives in 1938.
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I assume you are referencing Colonel Thomas Marshall of the 3rd Virginia Regiment (1776-77), and the Virginia regiment of Artillery (1777-1778). The family history book by William M. Paxton (1884) claimed Col. Marshall was captured at the fall of Charleston in May, 1780. This statement is incorrect. At the time of the fall of Charleston, Col. Marshall was detached from his regiment, and was engaged in surveying in Kentucky at the behest of Governor Jefferson. A portion of the Virginia Artillery Regiment were dispatched to the South; including some attached to Col. Porterfield's corps sent towards Charleston. Two of Col. Marshall's sons (Capt. Thomas, and Lt. James M.) were present with this force. They did not reach Charleston, as they withdrew into North Carolina after Tarleton's victory and massacre of Buford's command at Waxhaws.
Through 1780 the enlistments of the Virginia Artillery Regiment gave out, leaving only the officers on half-pay. Col. Marshall continued surveying in Kentucky, as the lands were to be distributed to Virginia veterans as part of their enlistment and service bounties.
James E. Marshall