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It a frequently the case that people looking for unit and unit designations mix up the various designations, and they are not interchangeable.
In 1917, US units were organized on the basis of the Square Division, which means that each Division had two brigades of infantry, each of which was composed of two regiments. Each of those regiments had a C Company, because the 12 companies of the regiment were lettered consecutively. So there were 4 C Companies in the infantry regiments. The other elements of the division such as the Engineer Regiment, the 3 Machine Gun Battalions (for those unit in France), and the Field Signal Battalion also had C Companies.
Furthermore, the 2nd Division (ancestor of today's 2nd Infantry Division) was a Regular Army division organized in France from the Marine Brigade and a Brigade of Regular Army troops, the 3rd Infantry Brigade composed of the 9th and 23rd Infantry Regiments.
This fact does not preclude your grandfather serving in a 2nd Division, however. When the National Guard was mobilized and deployed to the border with Mexico during 1917, it was organized into ad hoc and provisional brigades and divisions.
There is a way to go forward, although the National Archives are not necessarily the best avenue. The National Guard was (and is) organized on a State basis. As a general rule, people joined the National Guard unit in their place of residence. If your grandfather joined the National Guard in Laredo, Texas, he joined the local unit of the Texas National Guard. At that time, National Guard records were not held by the Federal Government, although they would have records pertaining to periods of active Federal service.
As a result, your best approach would be to contact the Texas Military Department, and specifically the Texas Military Forces Museum in Austin, Texas. The director, Jeff Hunt, is probably your best point of contact if you do not live locally.
On a purely personal note, if you live close enough to Austin to visit the museum in person, I cannot recommend it highly enough.
John M. Atkinson
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Dear Ms. Hernandez,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located a series titled Orders and Memorandums, 1917 of the 2nd Provisional Infantry Division in the Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units (Record Group 391). We also located 82 additional series pertaining to the Punitive Expedition to Mexico that the 2nd was part of. For access to these series, please contact the National Archives at Washington, DC - Textual Reference (RDT1) via email at email@example.com.
Plus we located another series titled Charges, Specifications, and Findings of General Courts-Martial Received by the 2nd Provisional Infantry Division, 1917 of the 2nd Provisional Infantry Division in the Records of U.S. Regular Army Mobile Units (Record Group 391). For access to this series, please contact the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your family research!