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Dear Ms. Hayes,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
Thousands of African Americans served their country during the Spanish American War in multiple Army units. We are unaware of a single, comprehensive list of all these soldiers. However, records do exist that document their service.
Most soldiers called into service for the Spanish-American War served with regiments raised by their state. Some states raised units with African American soldiers. These units were designated by the term “Colored”. These units included the 3rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), the 8th Illinois Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), Companies A and B 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), the 23rd Kansas Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), the 3rd North Carolina Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), the 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops), and the 6th Virginia Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops).
In addition, African American soldiers served in the U.S. Army's 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th U.S. Volunteer (Colored) Infantry regiments. The U.S. volunteers were special regiments raised specifically for the Spanish-American War. Some state and U.S. volunteer units served abroad while others spent the entire war in the United States. The US Army Center of Military History has share online the document Spanish-American War: Volunteer Forces which provides statistical and limited historical information about these units and other volunteer units.
Personnel files for state and U.S. volunteers can be found in the record series Carded Records Showing Military Service of Soldiers Who Fought in Volunteer Organizations During the Spanish-American War, 1899 - 1927. Carded service records are arranged by state, type of regiment (artillery, cavalry, and infantry), and then by the number of the regiment. Within each regiment, the jackets for individual soldiers are arranged alphabetically. There are compiled military service records for both officers and enlisted men. A typical record includes cards that extract the monthly muster rolls and other regimental papers about that individual. Usually the cards show whether the soldier was present with his company, absent on detached duty, or sick. In addition, you may find medical treatment cards and certificates of discharge for disability. The compiled military service records for the Spanish-American War usually show the date of enlistment, place of enlistment, birth place and date, personal description, medical information, date and place of discharge, and address of next of kin. This series is name indexed by the series Indexes to the Carded Records of Soldiers Who Served in Volunteer Organizations During the Spanish-American War, 1899 - 1927.
In addition the volunteer units, there were also four Regular Army regiments of African American soldiers, popularly known as Buffalo Soldiers. These regiments were the 9th Cavalry, the 10th Cavalry, the 24th Infantry, and the 25th Infantry. All four of these units fought in Cuba. The Center for Military History has made available online some records records related to Buffalo Soldiers at San Juan Hill. Muster rolls for these regiments are included in the record series Muster Rolls of Regular Army Organizations, 1784 - 10/31/1912. Additional information about individuals enlisted in Regular Army regiments can be found in Enlistment Papers, 1798 - 10/31/1912.
All of the National Archives record series linked above are in the custody of the National Archives at Washington, DC - Textual Reference (RDT1). To access these records, please contact RDT1 via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Military service records for individuals may also be ordered online using the process described on Requesting Copies of Older (pre-WWI) Military Service Records.
Some state archives may have additional records about state volunteers. In addition, searches online and in libraries will also turn up multiple histories written about some of these regiments and their participation in the Spanish American War.
We hope this information is helpful. Best of luck with your research!
Jason - Thank you, this response has been very useful for my research!