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So, there are a couple issues with this request as you phrase it.
First, PTSD as a term is relatively recent. The term was coined in 1980 (Andreason, 2010). By definition, veterans treated for PTSD would fall under the rules for Veteran's Health Records or Clinical Records for Active Duty Personnel. So the detailed records would not be accessible other than to the next of kin, without a release from the veteran. While you can request records under the Freedom of Information Act, only limited information can be released, and this does not include medical records.
That is not to say that other people throughout history have not been treated for mental health disorders related to stress. Andreason (2010) gives a fairly thorough overview of the terms used historically, and the abstract is here. The full version is behind a paywall at the New York Academy of Science.
For some historical documents on mental health treatments of veterans that might be releasable, see this previous answer. However, keep in mind that looking at veteran's records only provides insight into a small proportion of persons with PTSD and that generalizing from a limited dataset with a significant selection bias is not scientifically or statistically sound. Additionally, it is unlikely that records of treatment from 1940s would have quantifiable data that would be acceptable by modern standards.
However, for detailed data susceptible to quantitative analysis methods, you are much more likely to make headway by requesting datasets from researchers who have written articles in the professional literature of psychology. Perhaps the National Institutes of Health would be a better avenue to pursue this search?
John M. Atkinson
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Dear Ms. Gulliksen,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog for records relating to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and located a variety of records. In addition to these records, the National Archives has in its custody Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs (Record Group 344), Records of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (Record Group 52), Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army), and Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff) (Record Group 341). While we do not know that these records have information about the specific treatments and programs you are researching, they may have information concerning historical treatments of conditions variously known as PTSD, shell shock, and battle fatigue. Which specific records would be of interest depends on the time period you are researching. Questions about these records may be referred to the contacts listed in the Catalog descriptions.
The location and accessibility of clinical and individual medical records for former members of the military depends on the time period in which the veteran was discharged from the service. Without the consent of the veteran, next-of-kin or person of record, the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) can only release limited information to the general public.
For questions about current treatment practices, we recommend that you consult the Department of Veteran’s Affairs and Department of Defense medical programs, as well as relevant professional organizations and literature.
We hope this information is helpful. Best of luck with your research!