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I suggest reviewing Record Group 360, Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention. This record group is accessible on microfilm (M866) at the National Archives in Washington D.C. and various regional archives. M866 is also digitized and accessible on Fold3.
Fortunately, there are many online resources. The Library of Congress offers a useful guide to help you locate digital collections: Constitution of the United States: Primary Documents in American History. I recommend searching the Journals of the Continental Congress and Jonathan Elliot's The Debates in Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution. The text of the Federalist Papers can also be found on Congress.gov.I hope this information is helpful!