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Dear Channing Joseph,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
According to an article from InTower, the District of Columbia Penitentiary building was occupied by the War Department and used as an arsenal in 1862. The prisoners were transferred to the Albany Penitentiary. Since this was a county facility, we suggest contacting the Albany County Hall of Records and the DC Archives for DC Jail committal records (1850-1934).
We hope this information is helpful. Best of luck with your research!