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Dear Mr. Leavenworth,
Thank you for posting your question to History Hub. The National Archives at Boston has one small series of Fish Census Records dating from 1881-1885 for Massachusetts and Maine. For more information on accessing these records, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
There are also various federal Census reports accessible through census.gov which give statistics on employment in the fisheries industries. These reports are a little difficult to search. I found that browsing reports by year here was the most effective:
For instance, the 1872 publications page includes “1870 Census: A Compendium of the Ninth Census” which includes a table with fisheries statistics.
If you are interested in fish catch statistics, as opposed to employment statistics, the National Archives at Boston has several additional series which may be of interest:
Best of luck with your research!