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The National Park Service provides a great summary of Buffalo Soldiers and their history [online here]. There is also a related thread here on History Hub that has already identified many great links about Buffalo Soldiers: Seeking pictures of Buffalo soldiers
There is also information for specific units of Buffalo Soldiers and battles in which they participated. For example, you might want to check out the Library of Congress Veteran's History Project page, "Experiencing War: Buffalo Soldiers: The 92nd in Italy." The above links, though, should get you started on a good overview and lead you to many other resources to explore.
Library of Congress
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Dear Mr. Hosmer,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located 5 series, 170 file units, and 137 items related to "Buffalo Soldiers" in various record groups that may be of interest to you. Many of these records have been digitized and may be viewed online using the Catalog. For more information about any of the non-digitized records, please contact the National Archives reference unit listed in that specific Catalog description.
Due to the continued impact of COVID-19, you may experience a delay in receiving an initial acknowledgment as well as a substantive response to your reference request from various NARA reference units. We apologize for this inconvenience and appreciate your understanding and patience as we balance mission-critical work and the safety of our staff during the pandemic. Please check NARA’s web page about COVID-19 updates for the latest information.
In addition, the article Researching African Americans in the US Army, 1866-1890: Buffalo Soldiers and Black Infantrymen from the National Archives publication Prologue and the article Exploring the Life and History of the "Buffalo Soldiers" from the National Archives publication The Record provide a good introduction to and an overview of the early history of Buffalo Soldiers. There also are many posts related to Buffalo Soldiers in the National Archives blog Rediscovering Black History that may be useful for your research. Next, we suggest that you review several previous History Hub posts related to Buffalo Soldiers.
Finally, you may wish to contact the National Museum of African American History and Culture or the US Army Center of Military History for assistance.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your research!