4 Replies Latest reply on Jun 1, 2021 9:09 AM by history fan

    Laws passed after the Tulsa Race Massacre?

    history fan Adventurer

      I've read that several Anti-Lynching bills were proposed after the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre.  Were any of these ever passed successfully?  Was there any other related legislation that was actually passed?

       

      Thanks for your assistance!

        • Re: Laws passed after the Tulsa Race Massacre?
          Lauren Theodore Adventurer

          Good afternoon,

           

          Thank you for posting your question on History Hub.

           

          A search of our National Archives Catalog showed multiple record series relating to anti-lynching legislation. The first group is in Record Group 233 - Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789 - 2015 at the Center for Legislative Archives. These include Committee Papers, 1813 - 2011, Petitions and Memorials, 1813 - 1968, and Committee Papers of the Committee on the Judiciary for the 75th Congress.

           

          There are others as well, so please contact the Center for Legislative Archives directly for more information. Their contact information is:

           

          Center for Legislative Archives (LL)

          National Archives Building

          Room 8E, 7th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW

          Washington, DC 20408

          Phone: 202-357-5350

          Fax: 202-357-5911

          Email: legislative.archives@nara.gov

           

          We also located records at the Harry S. Truman Library in Record Group 220 - Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards, 1893 - 2008 that include Anti-Lynching Legislation, Report on, Anti-Lynching Legislation [mail favoring], and Anti-Lynching Bills (Experimental Bills Prep. by the Dept. of Justice).

           

          The contact information for the library is:

           

          Harry S. Truman Library (LP-HST)

          500 West U.S. Highway 24

          Independence, MO 64050-1798

          Phone: 816-268-8272

          Fax: 816-268-8295

          Email: truman.reference@nara.gov

           

          We cannot verify if any of the legislation records included above are direct result of the Tulsa Race Massacre. It is necessary for the reference staff to conduct a more thorough investigation into the records and perform additional searches for legislation from a particular event.

           

          We hope this information is helpful in beginning your research.

           

          Sincerely,

           

          The National Archives and Records Administration

          3 people found this helpful
          • Re: Laws passed after the Tulsa Race Massacre?
            Legislative Archives Scout

            Thanks for posting to History Hub!

             

            From shortly before the Tulsa Race Massacre until about 1960, nearly 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in Congress. None were signed into law. Several bills passed the House, including what became known as the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill -- first introduced as H.R. 11279 in 1918 (65th Congress), it passed the House as H.R. 13 in 1922 (67th Congress). The bill failed to pass in the Senate. You can view the Red Record of Lynching Map, submitted in support H.R. 13, in the National Archives Catalog.

             

            More detail on Dyer's anti-lynching push is available in the historical essay, Anti-Lynching Legislation Renewed, published by the History Office of the House of Representatives. Rep. Leonidas C. Dyer represented sections of St. Louis, MO across the river from East St. Louis, IL, which saw race riots in the summer of 1917 and compelled "Dyer to tackle the problem of lynching and mob violence." The House established a Select Committee to investigate the circumstances surrounding the East St. Louis riots.

             

            The first anti-lynching bill was introduced by Rep. George Henry White of North Carolina in January 20, 1900 in an effort to make lynching a Federal crime. It was referred to the House Judiciary Committee, but no further action was taken. The first page of H.R. 6963, 56th Congress is available online via the Capitol Visitor Center website.

             

            In 2005 the Senate passed S.Res. 39, a resolution: "Apologizing to the victims of lynching and the descendants of those victims for the failure of the Senate to enact anti-lynching legislation." For more information on modern anti-lynching legislation see the Congressional Research Service report: "Overview of Recent Anti-Lynching Proposals" (November 18, 2020).

             

            The best source to track legislation is the Congressional Record. The Congressional Record is the record of proceedings and debate on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. It's published daily while Congress is in session and a permanent, bound edition is published at the end of each session of Congress. Both the Index to the Proceedings section and the History of Bills and Resolutions section included in the bound edition are good starting points. The Congressional Record is freely available online via GovInfo, and it's also available through subscription databases like HeinOnline.

             

            Another helpful source for legislative information is ProQuest Congressional, a subscription database with the full text of the Serial Set. The Serial Set includes both published reports from congressional committees and documents ordered printed by the House or the Senate. Check with a local academic or law library for access to ProQuest. There are a number of committee reports on anti-lynching legislation.

             

            To dive deeper into proposed anti-lynching legislation you're welcome to contact us at the Center for Legislative Archives by emailing legislative.archives@nara.gov. We hold the committee records of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. In addition to the original bills and committee papers, we also have anti-lynching petitions that were sent in to Congress -- many in conjunction with proposed legislation. An example of a 1900 anti-lynching petition is available in the National Archives Catalog.

             

            Cheers!

            Sarah

            3 people found this helpful