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Finally, If you haven't done so, I would contact the State historical Societies of North Dakota
( https://www.history.nd.gov/archives/vitalrecords.html ) and South Dakota ( https://history.sd.gov/ ).
We hope this information is helpful in your research!
I wonder if the Dakota listed as the birthplace in the 1895 MN state census could refer to the town of Dakota, Winona Co, MN. That county had a high Polish population, beginning in the 1850's, and also had a high Native American population. In later Native American censuses for the area, the surname Markie (Marky, Markey) is common.
Yes, in 1895 Dakota seems to be mentioned, but in 1897 Joseph’s birth country is Poland and in 1900 his birth place is New York. His age seems to vary a bit as well: 38 in 1895 (i.e. b abt 1856/7) and 33 in 1900 (i.e. b abt 1866/7)
However I believe that he might be mentioned in the naturalization records for Ramsey County, Minnesota as follows:
Declaration of intention May 1896 (bottom of page) : https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS3G-1NVP?i=1438
Final Papers May 1896: https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS3G-13Q2-J?i=289
==> So, supposedly he was born in Poland (under German rule) abt 1863 and he immigrated to the US via New York in 1876 (Of course none of this might be completely true either)
Have you discovered him in the 1880 census yet?
PS what is your source for the surname "Kaczmarkiewicz"??