Dear Mr. Artamonov,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located 29 series in the General Records of the Department of State (Record Group 59) that consist of various types of passport applications from 1795 to March 1925. They do not include the passport number unless it was annotated on the application. For more information, please contact the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and pursuant to guidance received from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), NARA has adjusted its normal operations to balance the need of completing its mission-critical work while also adhering to the recommended social distancing for the safety of NARA staff. As a result of this re-prioritization of activities, you may experience a delay in receiving an initial acknowledgement as well as a substantive response to your reference request from RDT2. We apologize for this inconvenience and appreciate your understanding and patience.
The U.S. Department of State has passport applications from Apr. 1925 to the present. Please visit Get Copies of Passport Records to submit an application request.
In addition, we suggest that you review the unofficial site What is my passport number? for information regarding passport numbers.
We hope this is helpful. Best of luck with your research!
Thank you very much!