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Although the term "Black Friday" is solely associated with holiday shopping these days, it wasn't always that way. The phrase was first coined in 1869 to describe the financial crisis after the United States's gold market crashed, according to the History Channel. It then became linked to retail after stores were "in the red" for the entire year, which indicated poor sales. The day after Thanksgiving, retailers were "in the black" after the influx of shoppers spent their money on discounted goods.
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You may wish to review old newspapers to see examples how the term is used.