Dear Mr. Short,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
Marbury v. Madison, 5 US 137 (1803), was the first U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States. See Marbury v. Madison on Oyez for a summary of the case and Justia for the full text of the opinion of the court.
Exactly how to interpret what is and is not constitutional is a matter in which there are diverse schools of thought. You may be interested in the Congressional Research Service report on Modes of Constitutional Interpretation.
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