Dear Ms. Ward,
Thank you for posting your request on History Hub!
The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was established in 1866 for veterans of the Union Army, Navy, Marines and Revenue Cutter Service who fought in the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 through 1865. According to the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, and the Proceedings and Official Reports of the Annual Encampment of the Department of Illinois G.A.R., Volumes 57-63 (1923), WS Hancock Post, No. 560 Chicago was chartered in 1886. The proceedings as well as the Illustrated roster of the Department of Illinois Grand Army of the Republic, 1914 list a “F.A. Newman” and a “F.A. Neuman” respectively who may be a match for your great-grandfather. The later source states that he served as a private in C Company, 9th Wisconsin Infantry.
The National Park Service’s Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System lists 2,025 Union soldiers and 10 sailors with the name of Newman. Of these, only Anton Newman (alternate name Anton Neumann) served in the C Company, 9th Regiment, Wisconsin Infantry. He also served in D Company. According to the database, he entered as a musician (most likely a drummer in the case of an infantry unit) and left as a private
We searched the National Archives Catalog and located Indexes to the Carded Records of Soldiers Who Served in Volunteer Organizations During the Civil War in the Records of the Adjutant General's Office (Record Group 94) which includes a reference card for [Wisconsin] Newman, Anton - 9th Infantry, Company D,C. (alternate name Anton Neumann). This card has been digitized and can be viewed online through the Catalog. We also located Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who Served Between 1861 and 1900, 1949 - 1949 in the Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs (Record Group 15) which included an index card for Anton Neumann of Company D and C, 9th Regiment Wisconsin Infantry. See below for an image of that record. These index cards indicate that there is a compiled military service record and a pension file for Anton Neumann, aka Anton Newman. The full files have not yet been digitized.
The index card for the pension record states that in addition to his service in the 9th Wisconsin Infantry, he also served in K Company, 2nd U.S. Artillery, and in the 5th U.S. Cavalry. We searched Registers of Enlistments in the United States Army, 1798 - 1914 and found three listings for Anthony Newman, born ca. 1847 in Wisconsin, that might be a match. The first shows an enlistment date of 13 May 1865 and a discharge in May 1868 at Ft. Laurimie. However it The second shows an enlistment on 13 November 1868, service in K Company, 2nd Artillery, and a discharge on 13 Nov. 1871 at Ft. Monroe, VA as a sergeant. The third shows enlistment on 11 June, 1875 and a discharge in St. Louis, Missouri. We were unable to make out the discharge date. In each case the place of enlistment was Chicago. Eye color was variously reported as brown, blue and hazel, which is not unusual for persons with hazel eyes.
We also located two listings listing for “Anton Neumann” on “Historical Register of National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, 1866-1938, (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1749)” which indicates that he was born in Wisconsin ca. 1847, was in and out of the Northwestern Branch, Milwaukee, Wisconsin National Home for Disable Veterans on several occasions until his death 30 December 1936, that his wife Matilda Neumann lived in Chicago, and that he lived in Chicago when not in the National Home. See below for an image of those records. Please note that the pension number matches that given on the pension index card referenced above. Eye color is given as hazel.
We searched Census records and located listings under several name variations that appear to be a match for this person. The 1850 Census (Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Milwaukee Ward 1) lists Anton Neuman, born ca. 1847. The 1860 Census lists Anton Neumann, born ca. 1847 is Wisconsin, living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The 1870 Census (Virginia, Elizabeth City, Fort Monroe) lists Corporal Anthony Newman, born ca. 1847 in Wisconsin. The 1880 Census (Illinois, Cook, Chicago, District 150) lists Frank Neumman, born ca. 1847 in Wisconsin, living with wife Mathilde Neumann, son Louis, and daughter Flora. The 1900 Census (Illinois, Cook, Chicago, Ward 14, District 0428, Sheet 12) lists Frank Neumann with wife Matilda Neumann and daughters Florence and Edna. The 1910 Census (Illinois, Cook, Chicago Ward 16, District 0768) shows a Frank A. Newmann, born ca. 1847 in Wisconsin, living with Matilda Newmann at 1407 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, which matches the details given on the first National Home listing for Anton Neumann and the initials given on the listings for F.A. Newman/Neuman in the GAR documents. They are living with their grown daughter Florence E. Rohrback, her husband Dr. Otto Rohrback, and grandchildren Edward, George, and Robert. The 1920 Census (Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wauwatosa, District 0326) and 1930 Census (Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Milwaukee (Districts 251-337), District 0311) for the National Home for Disabled Soldiers lists “Antony F Newman” and “Antone Newman” respectively, which in all their details appear to be the same person. For more information about accessing Census Records, see here: https://www.archives.gov/research/census
We also located a grave for “Anton Neumann” in the Wood National Cemetery. A listing for this burial can be found in the record series Burial Registers, 1867 - 2006 in Record Group 15. That listing gives the names Anton Neuman and Anthony Newman.
It is not unusual to find variant spellings in such records, especially when the details are given by a third party which would have been the case for many of these records. It was also common for persons in this time to be inconsistent in their own spelling of their name, and especially for children of immigrants using anglicized versions of their name at times.
All of the National Archives records referenced above are in the custody of the National Archives at Washington, DC - Textual Reference (RDT1). Where practical we have linked or attached digital images of the records. To request copies of the remaining records, please email RDT1 at Archives1reference@nara.gov. Be sure to link this reply in your email. There may be a reproduction fee for records not yet digitized. Also, because of the current public health crises, National Archives research rooms are closed to the public, and many staff are teleworking. Please be patient.
Also, the census records and the enlistment registers referenced above are available through Ancestry. You may also be interested to known what there what appears to be a user created listing for for Frank Anton Neumann as part of the Volkman Family Tree on Ancestry, as well as a listing for Frank Neumann as part of the Dean Family Tree, each of which have some (but not all) of the sources we reference linked to them.
The National Archives does not keep membership records concerning fraternal organizations. See this article for advice on researching freemasons and this article for advice on researching members of the Grand Army of Republic.
We hope this information is helpful. Best of luck with your family research!