We are finally catching up on blog posts for the libraries in the National Archives system. We've covered Roosevelt and Reagan. Now let's get to Nixon. This is a re-post of a Prologue article that ran in October 2015. October is American Archives Month. As this goes to post the Nixon Presidential Library is putting the finishing touches on a $15 million dollar redesign of the exhibits. Go soon to see the new galleries.
The original article was written by Alley Jordan.
The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum was established on July 11, 2007, on a nine-acre plot of land in Yorba Linda, CA, where Nixon was born and buried. The city of Yorba Linda is 40 miles southeast of Los Angeles.
To populate the library, records came from the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation, a private library, and the National Archives and Records Administration, a Federal agency.
According to the Nixon Library, “The Nixon presidential materials collection contains approximately 4,000 separate recordings of broadcast video, nearly 4,500 audio recordings, 30,000 gifts from foreign heads of states, American citizens, and others, 300,000 still photographs, 2 million feet of film, 46 million pages of documents, and 3,700 hours of recorded presidential conversations.”
The case addressed the question of whether the “executive privilege” clause of the Constitution granted the President immunity from judicial review.
Watergate Government Exhibit One: Photograph of the Watergate Complex. (National Archives Identifier 304965)
After Nixon left office in 1974, he signed an agreement with the administrator of the General Services Administration (GSA)—which then oversaw the National Archives—giving the former President control over his Presidential materials, including the tapes, as well as the right to destroy the tapes after five years.
Congress, however, intervened and passed the Presidential Recording and Materials Preservation Act (PRMPA).
The act required Nixon to give all of his materials to the Federal Government, and they would be housed at the National Archives in Washington, DC.
The act further required that all materials relevant to the abuse of government power and Watergate were to be processed and released to the public before the release of other materials.
Nixon sued under the argument that PRMPA was a violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects citizens from illegal searches and seizures of personal property from the Federal Government.
A 20-year legal battle followed. Ultimately, the courts ruled the Government had authority to seize the materials, although Nixon was entitled to compensation. Since Nixon was deceased by then, his estate was awarded an $18 million settlement in 2000.
The library’s grounds encompass the house that Nixon’s father, Frank, built in 1912.
(Photo Courtesy of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation)
Ironically, Nixon’s attempts to keep his Presidential information hidden from public view, such as high-profile court cases and a deal with the head of GSA, made the public even more aware of his attempts to cover up his actions.
In 2004, Congress agreed that Nixon’s Presidential materials no longer had to remain in the Washington, DC, area. This amendment to the PRMPA opened the way to moving the material to California, effectively merging the Nixon Library with the National Archives’ Presidential library system.
For more information on the Nixon Presidential Library, read James Worsham’s Fall Prologue Magazine article.