After reading the Prologue article about Winema Riddell, a Modoc woman who acted as a mediator for the US government, I used the Innovation Hub to make her pension available on the National Archives Catalog.

While we don’t know how many pensions were awarded by a congressional act, the number provided to women for their service is fairly low, especially Native American women!  That being said, here is another case from 1844 concerning a Creek woman, Milly Francis.  You can find the House and Senate reports for Winema Riddell’s case on Proquest.

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Another interesting tidbit is that the image of Winema in our collection was photographed by Eadweard Muybridge, who held the patent for photographing moving objects.  You can check out other stereographs taken by him while visiting the Still Picture Research Room at Archives II in College Park, Maryland and by searching the Catalog.  

Further records of interest about Winema and the Modoc War that are available online, include: Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General (Main Series), 1871–1880 (M666) and the Indian Census Rolls, 1885–1940 (M595).  You can read about the government’s concerns with regard to the Modocs in the former and view Winema’s listing on the Klamath Rolls until her death in 1920 in the latter.

Finally, more information about the Modoc War exists in the holdings at Archives I in Washington, DC in the Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands (RG 393), which contain letters received from Indian Agents leading up to the war (Entry A1-1 718).