1870 Census second counts?

 I'm starting to research the 1870 census and the recounts that were done.  NARA at: www.archives.gov/.../1870 indicates recounts were done for NYC (Manhattan), Philadelphia, and Indianapolis.  I'm trying to get online references to these 3, and have access to the Historical New York Times (Proquest), and am Googling other information.  The NARA site mentioned above states there is a 4th area that was recounted in 1870: "Geauga County, Ohio".  There is an online site that also indicates that some counties of Oregon in 1870 were also recounted.  I suspect these latter two online 'facts" are wrong.  If one looks at the census rolls... for example the census rolls for Ohio 1870 at www.familysearch.org/.../698915 one finds Ohio had two filmings of the 1870 census sheets (not two recounts) and the two filmings on different rolls are available to the public, and the same two filmings situation I found for Oregon 1870.  My question then, in addition to any Archives resources about 2nd enumerations in 1870 for the 3 cities, is: "Is the Geauga County, Ohio online statement by NARA for the 1870 census wrong? If it is correct, can you provide references to that county recount, where are the scans/films and  why was the recount done?  Thanks in advance.

  • Hi Joel,

    Some 30 years ago, someone did a pretty good scholarly article on the 1870 census recounts, but I can't place my finger on a citation at the moment.  

    Geauga County, Ohio, definitely had two counts.  If one looks at Chester Township, for example, images 1 to 19 are of the first enumeration done by assistant marshal David Gates in July 1870.  Immediately following that, images 20-38, is the enumeration done by assistant marshal Walter Johnston in March 1871.  At the top of each page in Johnston's enumeration, you see the zero in 1870 marked over with a 1.  As I recall, the rest of the county is similar.  This is on the standard NARA Microfilm Publication M593, Ninth Census of the United States, 1870.  

    If you do a search on one of the newspaper websites for keywords = Geauga census and date = 1871 you will get at least a couple newspaper articles which strongly imply that concern over the county losing a seat in the state legislature was apparently the reason for the recount.  I have not dug deeper than this.  

    -Claire Kluskens, NARA 

  • Let me answer my question now that I've done the research.  Better yet, I've produced a YouTube video on recounts of the 1870 census, both federal and city or county recounts. https://youtu.be/hg4YILFPfxo   There will be in the next two weeks two more videos specifically on the Philadelphia 2nd enumeration.

    Using newspaper archives, and the census images, the four original locations do indeed have 2nd enumerations.  They also share that both their first and second counts were preserved and filmed.  But there are 3 others that have had a 2nd federal recount, but the original material has not been filmed, only the recount.  The new material is dated after the count period is over.  That includes Davis County, KS, Ottawa County, Ohio, and three Wards in St. Joseph, MO (with a 50% increase in population)!  In addition, I have (more or less) information on non-federal counts after the 1870 census populations became published for Baltimore MD, Memphis TN, Nashville TN, Savannah GA, Scott Co IA, and Wilmington DE.  

    Thanks Claire for your help.

  • Thanks for the update, Joel. I enjoyed your first video.