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Many pages on By the People are written in languages other than English or contain words and phrases with accents, such as café or coup de théâtre. Writers such as Mary Church and Clara Barton spent time in Germany and France, and sometimes practiced their language skills by writing in the local language. Abraham Lincoln received correspondence from speakers of many other languages, and Alan Lomax and his collaborators wrote down songs and stories in French, Creole, German, Finnish, Swedish, Polish, and Hungarian. We want to capture these languages as they appear on the page, just as the authors wrote them down. Here’s how you can use or adapt your existing keyboard.


How to Type Accented Characters and diacritic marks on Mac

For accented letters:

  1. Press and hold down the letter you wish to accent until a menu with character accents appears
  2. Choose the character accent with the mouse or press the number corresponding below the accent in the menu. These numbers appear in light grey below the accents.


Another way to type diacritics and ligatures on a Mac is to use key combinations:


  • é, ó – Acute: Hold down OPTION key + e, then type the letter you want to accent
  • à
  • ô – Circumflex: Hold down OPTION key + i + the letter
  • ñ – Hold down OPTION key + n + the letter
  • ö – Trema: Hold down OPTION key + u + the letter
  • ç – Cedilla: Hold down OPTION key + c
  • ø – Hold down OPTION key + o
  • å Å – Hold down OPTION key + a
  • Æ – AE Ligature: Hold down OPTION key + ‘
  • œ – OE Ligature: Hold down OPTION key + q
  • ¿ – Hold down OPTION key and SHIFT key + ?
  • ¡ – Hold down OPTION key + 1


How to Type Accented Characters and diacritic marks on Microsoft Windows


Below you will find links to instructions on the Microsoft support pages for how to add and switch between different languages on your Windows device. You can install as many language keyboards as you want. Instructions vary for different versions of Windows.


If you are unsure which version of Windows is running on your device, here are instructions on how to find that information:


For entering Spanish, French, and German accents, install the "United States - International" keyboard. To add Finnish, Swedish, Hungarian and other languages, select the relevant language from the list of available keyboards in the Windows list. You can find this list by following the directions linked above.


To switch between different language keyboard settings on Windows


  • For Windows XP, 7 and 10 press left-Ctrl + left-Shift
  • For Windows 10 you may also press and hold the Windows key + Spacebar

A new challenge has arrived, volunteers! From August 12-19, help By the People complete 1,000 pages of "Suffrage: Women Fight for the Vote".

This new topic highlights the 70 year battle for women's right to vote, marking its’ 100th anniversary in 2019. Meet suffragists Susan B. Anthony, Mary Church Terrell, Carrie Chapman Catt, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Anna Dickinson! Engage with their personal letters, travel diaries, and organization ledgers to watch history unfold before your eyes. You'll see Susan B. Anthony affectionately give her friends nicknames and Elizabeth Cady Stanton write the book that almost rips the movement in half. Transcribe your way from the White House lawn to the beaches of South Africa.

Volunteer review is the crucial final step required to mark pages complete so they can return to for research use. Honor the work of these  tireless suffrage advocates by helping meet the 1,000 page goal! Anyone can take part, you just need to register for an account to jump into review. We also hope you'll spread the news of this challenge and invite others to join us as we engage intimately with suffrage history.

If you’re new to review, read through our How-To Review guide before getting started.


Join in by visiting Suffrage: Women Fight for the Vote!


We’ll log daily numbers here, so check in to see progress toward our goal!


Progress so far:

By 6pm EST on Wednesday, you'd already completed over 1,000 pages!  Amazing!!!  Clearly we underestimated your suffrage zeal, so we're setting a stretch goal. Can we complete a total of 2,000 by Monday??  Are you up for it?!

Monday, 8/19, 9am EST --

2,258 pages completed!


DateNot startedIn progressIn reviewCompleted
Monday 8/12, 9am EST19,9661,74215,6526,257

Monday 8/12, 5:30pm EST

Tuesday 8/13, 9am EST23,8051,79716,1436,635
Tuesday 8/13, 5:30pm EST23,7351,82116,5786,836
Wednesday 8/14, 9am EST23,0591,85216,9787,081
Wednesday 8/14, 6pm EST22,4811,92317,1877,379
Thursday 8/15, 9am EST22,1591,95117,3637,497
Thursday 8/15, 5pm EST21,6301,96317,6937,684
Friday 8/16, 9:30am EST21,2871,98917,8227,872
Friday 8/16, 5pm EST20,9982,02417,8868,062
Monday 8/19 9am EST19,7712,07118,6138515

("Not started" numbers may went up on 8/14 due to publication of new Suffrage pages!)