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2021

The Summer Olympics officially begin on July 23, 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Time to lace up those running shoes, tune up the bicycle, and go for that perfect 10!

Join us this week as we share a variety of records held at the National Archives related to historic Olympic Games and participants.

Members of the US olympic team in matching track outfits, walking on the track and waving to the crowd in the stands

Members of the US Olympics Team wave to spectators as they march into the LA Coliseum during the opening ceremonies for the 1984 Summer Olympics, 8/9/1984. National Archives Identifier 6386474

The Presidential Libraries of the National Archives hold memories of Olympic Games, as Presidents have traditionally welcomed Olympic teams and athletes to the White House, and sometimes attended the games in person. Additionally, at prior Olympic games, military photographers captured images of servicemen and women competing in the games. These photographs are part of the series Combined Military Service Digital Photographic Files, 1982 - 2007.

Here is a selection of some of our favorite Olympic images that can be found in the National Archives Catalog:

Fencing athlete pointing the sword near the direction of the camera
Man in a wrestling uniform smiles at the camera

Army Reserve 1ST Lieutenant John Moreau from San Antonio, Texas, participates in the fencing competition at the 1984 Summer Olympics, 8/1/1984. National Archives Identifier 6380124

T.J. Jones, US Navy, a member of the wrestling team competing at the 1984 Summer Olympics, 8/1/1984. National Archives Identifier 6380163

Jim Thorpe crouched in a runner's start, looking ahead
Two olympic athletes hold up their kayak

Photograph of Jim Thorpe, ca. 1910. National Archives Identifier 595347

Army Captain David L. Gilman, left, from Oakland Army Base, California, and Army National Guard Private First Class Daniel W. Schnurrenberger, members of the kayak team competing at the 1984 Summer Olympics, 8/1/1984 National Archives Identifier 6380088

A group of women swimmers dive off the starting blocks
Black and white photograph of a man jumping over the high jump while President Ford observes

Susan Rapp, the daughter of an Army colonel, is among the participants at the start of a race at the 1984 Summer Olympics. She won a silver medal for her performance in the 200 meter breaststroke, 8/6/1984 National Archives Identifier 6380010
Photograph of President Gerald Ford Watching Track and Field Athletes Practice for the 1976 Summer Olympics at New York State University College Campus in Plattsburgh, New York, 7/10/1976 National Archives Identifier 7062579

Olympic ceremonies at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Lights and light from an aircraft are seen in the night sky over the bridge
President Reagan poses with the members of the US Olympic team. President Reagan wears a cowboy hat

A US Air Force F-111 Aardvark aircraft, with it's after burner on, clears the Sydney Harbour Bridge during closing ceremonies of the 2000 Olympics games in Sydney, Australia, 10/1/2000 National Archives Identifier 6514773

President Ronald Reagan During a Ceremony to Welcome Home The United States Olympic Team Members Who Competed in Seoul, Korea Which Includes Robert Helmick Greg Barton Matt Biondi Janet Evans Florence Griffith Joyner and Andrew Maynard on The South Lawn, 10/24/1988 National Archives Identifier 75856325

President George W Bush hits a volleyball on the beach to Misty May Treanor
President Obama poses with Olympic gymnast McKayla Maroney

President George W. Bush Hits a Volleyball to U.S. Women's Beach Volleyball Team Member Misty May-Treanor, 8/9/2008 National Archives Identifier 148035494

President Barack Obama and U.S. Olympic gymnast McKayla Maroney recreate her 'not impressed' photograph, 11/15/2012. National Archives Identifier 183898490

1936 Olympic Games in Berlin
Black and white photograph of Jesse Owens jumping through the air

Photograph of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany, 1936. National Archives Identifier 148728022

Photographs of the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin were captured from Nazi Germany at the end of World War II, and can be found in Record Group 242: National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized. Learn more about the Return of Captured Records from World War II on the Pieces of History blog.

Photograph of Jesse Owens racing an opponent
Photograph of Jesse Owens sitting at a table writing with his medals on display

Photograph of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany, 1936. National Archives Identifier 148728028

Photograph of Jesse Owens at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany, 1936. National Archives Identifier 148728032

You can view additional examples from the photograph series 242-HD: Summer Olympic Games, Berlin, August 1936 in the National Archives Catalog. Photographs in this series include the lighting of the Olympic Torch at Mt. Olympus; the opening ceremonies in Berlin; pre-games training by different teams; athletes in the Olympic Village; various ceremonies, pageants and parades; athletes participating in various events; and informal portraits of athletes, crowd scenes and spectators including Adolf Hitler.

Learn more about the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin on the Unwritten Record blog: This Week in Universal News: The 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin  

Louis Zamperini

Before he was a war hero, Louis Zamperini was an Olympian. Read about his amazing Olympic and war story in the Unwritten Record post, Louis Zamperini: The Story of a True American Hero.

Photograph of Louis Zamperini examining a hole in his plane

Photograph of Lt. Lou Zamperini, Bombardier, Examining the Damage a Japanese Cannon Shell did to His Liberator, 1943 National Archives Identifier 16801970

Interested in additional Olympic resources? Find dozens of primary sources related to the Olympics from throughout history on DocsTeach.org, our online tool for teaching with documents. Learn more on the Education Updates blog.

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Free and open to anyone, you can ask questions and get answers from multiple sources including National Archives staff, other archives, libraries, museums, and a community of genealogists, history enthusiasts, and citizen experts like you.

For those looking to conduct research or learn more about records related to historic Olympic games and participants, we encourage you to browse recent posts and questions on History Hub. Recent posts include:

Jesse Owens breaks the 100m tape to win the first of his four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics

 

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There is always something to learn and discover in the National Archives Catalog. Join us this week as we celebrate some new, noteworthy, and just plain neat stories from our holdings.

Animated gif of a group of people testing out gymnastic moves in zero gravity
US National Archives on GIPHY. Source: Records of NASA, Motion Pictures Relating to Engineering, Documentary of Gymnastics in Zero-G, 5/22/1985. National Archives Identifier 78077759
Oh Dam(s)!

This newly available series of Construction Progress Negatives from the Records of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) document major construction stages of TVA fossil, hydro, nuclear, and coal gasification projects. Nearly 4,000 photographs in this series also include general activities of people, places and events including portraits, pictures of dedication ceremonies, managers, and presentations.

Cherokee Dam Construction Progress Negatives: National Archives Identifier 196757767
Black and white photograph of the Cherokee Dam Site, showing a landscape of a field with trees and brush
Black and white photograph of the Cherokee Dam construction site. The dam is partially built and surrounded by scaffolding. Workers can be seen on top of the dam, and on the ground.

Cherokee Dam Site, 8/12/1940, National Archives Identifier 204246280
Upstream Cone Area, 4/7/1941, National Archives Identifier 204246914

Kentucky Dam Construction Progress Negatives: National Archives Identifier 196757763

Black and white photograph of a river channel just below the dam site. A barge is floating in the middle of the river
Black and white photograph of an outdoor area of a knitting mill. Long tables contain piles of knitted items such a socks. Rocks and trolleys and wheelbarrows are seen throughout.

River channel below dam site, 2/16/1943, National Archives Identifier 201241318
Priester knitting mill, 2/18/1937, National Archives Identifier 201241386

Nottely Dam Construction Progress Negatives: National Archives Identifier 196757770

Black and white photograph of a group of lumberjacks cutting and sawing trees in a large wooded area.
Black and white photograph of the tunnel outlet of the dam. Wooded area in the foreground of the photo.

Sawing Trees, 7/18/1941, National Archives Identifier 204262251
Tunnel Outlet and Spillway Area, 10/28/1942, National Archives Identifier 204262453

Juneteenth

On June 19, 1865, two and a half years after President Abraham Lincoln’s historic Emancipation Proclamation, U.S. Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger issued General Order No. 3, which informed the people of Texas that all enslaved people were now free. They were the last group of Americans to be informed that all formerly enslaved persons were now free.

Zoomed in clip of General Order Number 3, informing the people of Texas that all enslaved people are now free.
General Order 3, 6/19/1865. National Archives Identifier 182778372

To understand Juneteenth’s significance, one must understand how geography, military occupation, timing, and the resilience of a proud people solidified June 19, 1865, as the date that symbolizes freedom for African Americans. The National Archives is the home of General Order No. 3 (National Archives Identifier 182778372), the document whose date of issue gave this celebration and holiday its name.

Learn more on the Rediscovering Black History blog: Juneteenth: The Celebration of a New Freedom in America and on Archives.gov.

Double Take: Finding Posters within Photos

For our staff, it is always a thrill to find something new in the millions of the digitized photographs, especially if it connects other records in our holdings. Once Daniel Dancis, a textual records archivist, started to notice some familiar WWII posters within WWII photographs in our holdings, he started to see them everywhere. He shares these finds and looks at the messaging in these meta moments in history in the Unwritten Record blog.

Animated gif of a man sitting at a desk in the Office of War information while talking on the phone. His office shows WWII posters on the walls behind him.
US National Archives on GIPHY. Source: Theodore R. Poston, Office of War Information, National Archives Identifier 535824
Recovery of 1810 Census Rolls

Local 1810 census records from Massachusetts, long missing from the collection of census records of the time, are finally in Washington, DC, after a 211-year delay, thanks to a social media post.

Book cover of the 1810 Census. The cover is a green and blue mottled print
Page of 1810 Census showing handwritten names and information
1810 Census of Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts. National Archives Identifier 205601220

A National Archives employee scrolling through Instagram saw a February post from the Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) Library that connected archives, genealogy, and Black history, using the 1810 Essex County census record book. You can now view the digitized version in the National Archives Catalog.
Learn more about the document’s recovery story on Archives.gov.

Animated gif of a 1950 census promotional video showing a group of people inside an outline of the United States.

Speaking of the census, have you visited the Census Records community on History Hub? As we gear up for the exciting release of the 1950 census population schedules in April 2022, be sure to stay tuned on History Hub for Census Fun Facts, tips for census research, and more.

Today's Document

Interested in daily featured documents from today in history from the holdings of the National Archives? Look no further than Today’s Document! You can follow Today’s Document on Tumblr, Twitter and Facebook.

Here are a few popular recent posts:

Richard and Mildred Loving’s marriage license, June 2, 1958, via @TodaysDocument on Twitter.

As an interracial couple, their marriage was against Virginia law. The Lovings appealed their case, and SCOTUS ruled that race-based restrictions on marriage violated the 14th Amendment.

Marriage license for Richard Loving and Mildred Jeter. The names and dates and locations are typed into the standard license form

National Archives Identifier 17412479

The Coast Guard Beach Patrol, June 17, 1926, via @TodaysDoc on Facebook.

Black and white photograph of a coast guard member wearing a raincoat, hat, and boots, patrolling the beach.
National Archives Identifier 205581988

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On June 28, 1969, the Stonewall Riots began following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, one of New York City's best known LGBTQ clubs. Forty-seven years later, the site was declared a National Monument by Presidential Proclamation. The nomination for its status as a National Monument is in the National Archives Catalog.

Black and white photograph of the Stonewall Inn Historic site in New York City

A view of Stonewall Inn Historic Site 1999. National Register of Historic Places Registration, National Archives Identifier 75319963

The month of June was chosen to honor the LGBT+ community because of the Stonewall Riots, which are viewed as the beginning of the modern-day LGBT+ rights movement.
Photograph of the White House at dusk lit in rainbow colors. The Washington Monument can be seen in the background

The White House is lit with the colors of the rainbow in celebration of the Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage, June 26, 2015. National Archives Identifier 176549838

Records at the National Archives constitute a rich documentary history of the experience of LGBT+ individuals. Here are a few examples of records from the National Archives Catalog documenting such experiences:

Baker v. Nelson

The earliest same-sex marriage case to be reviewed by the Supreme Court was Baker v. Nelson in 1972. On May 18, 1970, University of Minnesota students Richard Baker and James Michael McConnell applied for a marriage license in Minneapolis. The District Court Clerk of Hennepin County, Gerald Nelson, denied the couple’s application because they were both men. In response, Baker and McConnell sued the county office for discrimination, but the court dismissed the couple’s claims and ordered the clerk not to issue the license.

Typewritten document from the Baker v. Nelson case
Typewritten document from the Baker v. Nelson case
Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, Baker V. Nelson, #71-1027. National Archives Identifier 26318353

After their appeal was dismissed by the Minnesota Supreme Court, Baker and McConnell filed an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, where it was also dismissed “for want of a substantial federal question,” meaning the Court decided the issue did not directly relate to Federal laws. Although Baker and McConnell’s case was never technically heard by the Supreme Court, its dismissal set a lasting precedent against same-sex marriage, culminating in the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 1996.

Gay Students Organization of the University of New Hampshire, et al. vs. Thomas N. Bonner, et al.

Typewritten page from the case file complaint
This file unit consists of documents comprising U.S. District Court for the District of New Hampshire civil action case number 73-279. Filed in 1973, this is one of the earliest cases involving gay and lesbian civil rights. In their complaint, the plaintiffs stated that the defendants had denied their constitutional rights, including those secured by the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

Image: Gay Students Organization of the University of New Hampshire, et al. vs. Thomas N. Bonner, et al., Complaint, 11/28/1973. National Archives Identifier 40945142

Aaron Fricke v. Richard B. Lynch

This file unit consists of material related to civil action case file number 80-214, Aaron Fricke v. Richard B. Lynch. The subject matter of this case file relates to redress sought by the plaintiff, an eighteen-year-old male high school student, who had been denied by school officials of attendance at a school function with a male companion.

National Archives Identifier 29033010

You can help transcribe this record to make it more searchable in our Catalog. Learn how to register and get started.

Karen Ulane

Typewritten termination letter from Eastern Airlines to Karen Ulane

Karen Ulane was a transgender airline pilot who, after sex reassignment surgery, was fired from her job at Eastern Airlines. She sued her employer for sex discrimination and won but the case was overturned by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. The case was from 1981 and an early legal precedent for transgender people. NARA has some of the evidence submitted in the case. Ulane died in a plane crash on May 22, 1989. View Karen Ulane’s record on Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC).

Image: Exhibit, Termination Letter #1, 4/24/1981, National Archives Identifier 12008912

Photograph of President Obama with Gilbert Baker, standing next to a framed Gay Pride Flag in rainbow colors

President Barack Obama views the Gay Pride Flag with Gilbert Baker, the artist who designed the flag, prior to a reception in recognition of LGBT Pride Month, in the Blue Room of the White House, June 9, 2016. National Archives Identifier 176549434

United States v. Edith Windsor

In the 2013 case United States v. Windsor, the Supreme Court ruled the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA, passed in 1996) unconstitutional. DOMA defined marriage as the union of one man and one woman, allowed states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages granted under the laws of other states, and prohibited married same-sex couples from collecting Federal benefits.

Typewritten file copy from the Supreme Court case US v Edith Windsor
Although it did not legalize same-sex marriage, United States v. Windsor was a milestone in the fight for marriage equality. The decision forced the Federal Government to treat same-sex marriages equally under the law and made tax benefits previously restricted to opposite-sex couples available to same-sex couples. However, this ruling only extended to Federal laws; individual states did not have to recognize same-sex marriages.

National Archives Identifier 29308667

Obergefell v. Hodges

Obergefell v. Hodges is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples and that all states must recognize marriages in other states regardless of sexual orientation. Learn more on the Pieces of History blog, Milestones on the Road to Marriage Equality.

Listen to the audio recordings of the Supreme Court argument and opinion in the National Archives Catalog:

Photograph of the White House lit in rainbow colors. A crowd of people gather in front to look and take photos
The White House is lit with the colors of the rainbow in celebration of the Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage, 6/26/2015. National Archives Identifier 118817917
Visit National Archives News to browse additional LGBT+ records, holdings, and resources including:
Photograph of a group of people outside the White House celebrating the Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage. A group holds balloons spelling out "Love Wins"
People gather on Pennsylvania Avenue holding balloons that spell out "Love Wins" as the White House is lit with the colors of the rainbow in celebration of the Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage, 6/26/2015. National Archives Identifier 138925688
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On September 6, 1943, 22-year-old Oscar Klass Hamblin (T/SGT.) and crew were flying over northern France when they were raked by fire from a German Fw 190, necessitating an evacuation from their plane.

Typewritten escape and evasion report form with handwritten details
Typewritten escape and evasion report with handwritten narrative

Hamblin, Oscar Klass (T/SGT.) Escape and Evasion Reports, 1942 - 1945. National Archives Identifier 5554850.

According to Hamblin’s report, "I made a free fall for about 10000 feet and then opened my chute. I saw three lakes with woods and a field nearby. I tried to drift to the field, but a south wind blew me to the middle of the lake and I went 10 to 12 feet under water. When I began swimming, I became entangled in the shrouds of my chute. Just when I had released myself from the chute, a Frenchman and woman came out in a boat, helped me into it, and pulled the chute in after me. When we reached the shore, they hid my chute, and flying boots under the boat. They took me to their house, there they dressed my wounds, fed me, and gave me some civilian clothes."

On September 3, 1943, 25-year-old Sebron Andrew McQueen, Jr. (2nd Lt) and crew were flying east of Paris when their aircraft was attacked, and the pilot gave the order to evacuate.

Handwritten narrative in escape and evasion report
Typewritten escape and evasion report with handwritten details. Form also shows a drawing of a flying formation

McQueen, Sebron Andrew Jr. (2 L.t) Escape and Evasion Reports, 1942 - 1945. National Archives Identifier 5554889.

McQueen details what happened next in his report:

"I landed in an oat field and wrapped my flying equipment in the chute before covering it with oats. About twenty Frenchmen were watching me quietly, waiting to see what I would do... I could tell they weren't sure of me so I concentrated on a boy who knew a few words of English. Finally when I showed him my dog tags he motioned me to follow him... My friend and I were joined by two Frenchmen who ran with us about two miles. We stopped near a house and while I waited in some bushes the Frenchmen were gone into the house for several minutes before calling me. Inside the house I was treated politely, fed and questioned in great detail. Then I was told by an English-speaking man to go back in the bushes and stay until dark."

On September 6, 1943, 23-year old Allan Johnston (2nd Lt.) and crew were flying over France when their aircraft received heavy damage from a fighter attack.

Typewritten escape and evasion report with handwritten details
Handwritten narrative contained within escape and evasion report

Johnston, Allan G (2nd Lt.) Escape and Evasion Reports, 1942 - 1945. National Archives Identifier 5554852.

According to Johnston’s report: "The order to bale [sic] out was given by the pilot and acknowledged by all crew members. Because the bombardier's arm was injured, I helped him with his chute and watched him leave. Then I crawled forward and set fire to the maps. The pilot and co-pilot were still in their seats. I saw the radio operator go out through the bomb-bay before I jumped at 7500 feet, from the nose.

I think the best way to leave the nose is on the knees, tumbling head-first. Before I fell I unhooked my chute from the chest hooks and hugged it to my chest so that before pulling the rip-cord I could hold the chute over my head and not risk face injury when the straps went up. Leaving the aircraft I seemed to fall first at terrific speed and then more slowly… Touching the ground I hit the release on my chute and it fell away with the silk draped over the limbs of a tree. My flying pants fell off and I remember grabbing them in my hands before running.... I ran in the opposite direction from the soldiers I could still see in the field, I heard the sound of motorcycles. I had a glimpse through an opening in the trees of three chutes coming down in the fields. I stuck to the ridge for several minutes, running hard, before crawling into some blackberry bushes.”

Citizen Archivist Transcription Mission

Hamblin, McQueen, and Johnston’s reports, along with nearly 3,000 others, are part of a series containing information on escape and evasion activities and training of U.S. soldiers serving in the European theater during World War II, and are available to view and download in the National Archives Catalog. You can help make these records more searchable in our Catalog! Escape and Evasion Reports are the focus of a new transcription mission for our citizen archivists.

Within these records, you will find dramatic and gripping first hand accounts of survival from U.S. soldiers in Europe during World War II. (Including the Escape and Evasion case file for Flight Officer Charles (Chuck) Yeager.) The records typically include questionnaires about the use of escape and evasion (E&E) training and equipment; a listing of crew members; dates; locations, as well as a typed or handwritten narrative documenting the escape and evasion experience of the escapee or evader. These reports were maintained by the Administration Branch of the Escape and Evasion Section of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff (G-2) of the European Theater of Operations, U.S. Army, of the War Department.

We hope you will explore these records and help transcribe them to make them more searchable and discoverable. Transcribing these records will bring history to life and ensure the stories of the soldiers will not be forgotten.

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Memorial Day
Photograph of Air Force Airman in uniform saluting a wreath. Onlookers stand behind him.

U.S. Air Force SENIOR AIRMAN Patrick Hunt, Honor Guard, salutes after a wreath laying ceremony during a Prisoner of War/Missing In Action tribute at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.(U.S. Air Force PHOTO by AIRMAN Shawn Wells), 9/14/2004. National Archives Identifier 6687663.

Memorial Day, initially referred to as Decoration Day, began as a way to honor those who died in the Civil War and has become a day to honor all American veterans who gave their lives in sacrifice to our nation. Learn more about its history on our website and in the Pieces of History blog. This Memorial Day, we remember and honor those who have died in service to the United States during peace and war.

Blueprint detailing the location of American soldier battlefield grave sites during World War I.

Initial Burial Plats for World War I Soldiers, National Archives Identifier 12007376. This series consists of blueprint and plane table survey maps and field maps detailing the location of American soldier battlefield grave sites during World War I. Soldiers are identified by name, serial number and unit, if known.

Black and white photograph of the crew of a B-24 standing beside the plane, posing for a photograph

Crew of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator "Goon". Left to right, back row: T/Sgt. Archie L. Fleharty, Cozad Neb; Capt. Samuel J. Skousen, Thatcher, Ariz; T/Sgt. Robert M. Kirk, Alpha, Ill; T/Sgt. Arthur J. Benko, Bisbee, Ariz; (now missing in action) (U.S. Air Force Number 53334AC). National Archives Identifier 204829567.

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For those looking to conduct research or learn more about Military History and Military Records, we encourage you to browse recent posts and questions on History Hub, including the Military Records community and its Army and Air Force Records, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard Records, and Military and Civilian Personnel Records subspaces.

 

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Panoramic photograph from American Red Cross album of Tulsa following the massacre of 1921.

Records of the American National Red Cross. Photo Album of the Tulsa Massacre and Aftermath, 12/1921. National Archives Identifier 157688056, image 79.

The Tulsa Massacre of 1921 was one of the worst instances of mass racial violence in American history. The violence centered on Tulsa’s Greenwood District (also known as “Black Wall Street”), a commercial area with many successful Black-owned businesses. In 24 hours, hundreds were killed, thousands displaced, and 35 city blocks were burned to ruins. The attack on Black Wall Street included the first aerial bombing of a U.S. city.

Photograph from American Red Cross album of a street scene in Tulsa following the massacre of 1921. People are standing near rubble of buildings
Records of the American National Red Cross. Photo Album of the Tulsa Massacre and Aftermath, 12/1921. National Archives Identifier 157688056, image 60.

The American National Red Cross provided relief to many victims of this massacre. The Tulsa Chapter compiled reports and a photo album relating to their management of the disaster relief effort. The Red Cross photo album, available in the National Archives Catalog, shows riot scenes, devastated areas, National Guard troops, destroyed homes, dead victims, and massacre survivors in temporary housing.

Please note that some images in the Red Cross album are graphic and viewers might find them disturbing for racial violence.

Black and white photographs from the American Red Cross photo album. Two pictures show a man standing by a temporary tent shelter
Records of the American National Red Cross. Photo Album of the Tulsa Massacre and Aftermath, 12/1921. National Archives Identifier 157688056, image 35.
Black and white photograph of a man performing a medical exam on another man while three women look on
Records of the American National Red Cross. Photo Album of the Tulsa Massacre and Aftermath, 12/1921. National Archives Identifier 157688056, image 12.

In remembrance of the 100th Anniversary of the Tulsa Race Massacre, Netisha Currie, an archives specialist at the National Archives, curated the a recent Featured Document Display.

Typed report from American Red Cross director describing the relief effort after the Tulsa Race Massacre
Typed report from American Red Cross director describing the relief effort after the Tulsa Massacre

Oklahoma, Tulsa Co. Riot Reports and Statistics. This file unit contains reports, statistical reports, and a photographic album relating to the Red Cross' management of the disaster relief effort after the Tulsa massacre, or race riot, of May 31-June 1, 1921. National Archives Identifier 157670060

Learn more in Rediscovering Black History blog posts:

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Learn about newly added records and receive tips on using the Catalog's features, functionality, and guides. The National Archives Catalog is the online public portal to our records where you can learn more about our holdings. This email newsletter is delivered on a biweekly basis. Subscribe to the National Archives Catalog Newsletter